Schemes of Work

!n ECD it is recommended that motiiods that are child-centred and participatory be used. Thematic and integrated learning approach is one of such methods that has proven to be effective in facilitation of learning in ECD.


A theme is a central idea or topic around which learning takes place or is derived from.


The act of combining or adding parts to make a unified v/hole.

In ECD integration refers to where a teacher brings in various activity areas into one. For example in Theme ‘Home and Family’ children can name some family members (language), sing song about family members (mathematics), draw family members (creative art), sing a song about family members (music and movement) in one activity area.

Thematic Learning Method

This is a method where learning takes place based on a theme. The theme should cut across all the ECD activity areas. For example, sub-theme ‘myself the child could name parts of the body (language), count parts of the body (mathematics), sing songs about parts of the body (music and movement) model parts of the body (creative).

A theme can be broken into several sub-themes which may run for a period of two or more weeks. For example, in the theme Family, we have family members, food eaten by family members and clothes worn by family members as sub-themes.

Child Centred Approach

Child centred approach refers to learning cased on the interest of the child while the teacher/caregiver acts as a facilitator

Participatory Approach

In participatory approach, the child is encouraged to take part individually or in a group to explore, manipulate materials in the environment to enhance learning.