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Reproduction in Plants and Animals

   

   

Reproduction in Plants and Animals

In this video the following sub-topics will be studied: welcome
Sexual reproduction in plants and animals
Pollination
Fertilisation in flowering plants

Reproduction is the process by which living organisms give rise to new organisms of the same kind. There are two types of reproduction depending on whether or not sex cells are involved. These are: - sexual and asexual reproduction.
In this topic we shall cover the following areas: -

Cell division
Asexual reproduction in living organisms.
Fertilization in flowering plants
Reproduction in Amphibians
Fertilization, implantation and role of placenta in humans.
Gestation period
Role of hormones in reproduction in humans


The video clip below shows a bee landing on a flower to facilitate pollination and fertilization in frogs.
Cell division

Reproduction, growth, repair and replacement of old cells involves the multiplication of cells. For cells to be able to multiply, they undergo cell division where one cell divides into two, two cells divide into four and so on. The resultant cells from these divisions are called daughter cells which are similar to the parent cells.

Play the animation below to see the cells dividing.

In order to understand the process of cell division, it is important that we discuss and understand chromosomes which are the vehicles of heredity. They determine characteristics of daughter cells and the organisms that develop from these cells.

Chromosomes

These are thread like structures found In the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes remain invisible when a cell is not dividing. However, as a cell prepares to divide, the chromosome threads coil up forming a thicker, shorter and more compact structure. Each chromosome consists of two parallel strands called chromatids. The two chromatids are joined at one point called centromere. The chromatids, occurring in pairs are exact copies of one another, with the same length and shape. These pairs are called homologous pairs; each member of the homologous pair is called a homologous chromosome.

The illustration below shows two chromatids joined together at the centromere to form a chromosome.

Mitosis

In mitotic cell division, a cell divides into two daughter cells and each of the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell i.e. the diploid number of chromosomes. The process of mitosis occurs in a sequence of stages, each of which is a continuation of the other. Each stage merges with one another without interfering with cellular activities. The stages of mitosis are: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase


Seed and fruit development
Classification of fruits
Placentation
Dispersal of seeds and fruits
Sexual reproduction in animals
Reproduction in mammals
Male reproductive system
Female reproductive system
Cell divison and the chromosomes
Gamete formation
Fertilisation and gestation
Role of hormones during pregnancy
Role of hormones in menstrual cycle.mp4
Secondary sexual characteristics
Sexually transmitted infections
Advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction
Types of cell division Mitosis
Types of cell division Meiosis
Asexual reproduction Fission
Spore formation
Budding
Sexual reproduction in plants the flower

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